Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Theory of Planned Behaviour: Nurses Attitudes towards Older Patient
The Theory of Planned Behaviour: Nurses' Attitudes towards Older Patients ABSTRACT The Theory of Planned Behaviour was tested in a study for its ability to predict intention to behave in specific ways towards older patients. There were 172 subjects from 3 Scottish universities, Napier, Edinburgh and Abertay Dundee. The results gained from a questionnaire suggest that the Theory of Planned behaviour can be used to predict behavioural intentions of nurses when working with older patients. NursesÃ¢â¬â¢ intention to behave was predicted by their attitudes mostly, perceived behavioural control also carried a significant beta weight although social norms were found to be nonÃ¢â¬â significant. The underlying beliefs of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural controls were also investigated in terms of expectancy value models. Nurses with positive attitudes towards older patients were found to hold patient orientated values, and job satisfaction, more important than other relevant values. Nurses are also more motivated to comply with senior staff that ma y share their positive attitudes also. One consequence of the present findings is that greater levels of support by senior staff and ways of increasing job satisfaction will improve the levels of care and treatment for older patients. Introduction Last year, for the first time ever, the developed countries of the world had more people aged 60 and over than youths aged 14 and under. For the world as a whole, the same will be true by the year 2043. The percentage proportion of older people in Western Europe is predicted to increase by 14.8%, 8.8 in Japan and 2.7% in the U.S.(U.S Census bureau). Two major forces drive the shift in age distribution. First, birth rates are declining in most parts of the world, but especially in the industrialized nations. and second, life expectancy is increasing almost everywhere. The U.K is a prime example of this phenomenon. In 1999 16 % of the population was 65 and over (DOH 1999). With the advent of new medicine and treatment for more and more illnesses and diseases the trend will increase. The implications of a human population that is both growing and aging are numerous and worrying. Advances in medical science, nutrition and fitness, and even bioengineering point to the day when many human beings will have the option of living well past the age of 100 (CSIS gl... ...ch in health care has often over looked these variables. Certainly the high level of interpersonal care and contact in nurses day-to-day work is directly influenced by the nurses own self identity (Farley, Lehmann and Ryan 1981), so therefore attitudes are expected to be significantly predictive of behavioural intentions. Perceived behavioural control has been shown to be of greatest influence when a person has previous experience and knowledge of the target behaviour and environment ( Bentler & Speckart,1979; Fredricks & Dossett, 1983; Manstead et al. 1983). Gerontology is a large specialist field in healthcare and a large proportion of nursing education from the outset of 1st year training. The theory of planned behaviour offers a better architecture in which to incorporate these influencing factors. Hypotheses H1 = The theory of Planned Behaviour can be used to predict NursesÃ¢â¬â¢ intentions to behave towards elderly people. H2 = Behavioural beliefs and evaluations directly correlate with attitudes. H3 = Normative beliefs and evaluations directly correlate with subjective norms. H4 = Control beliefs and control power directly correlate with perceived behavioural controls.